What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)? Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

What is prostate?

The prostate is a small muscle gland of the male reproductive system. The prostate surrounds the urethra and produces most of the fluid in the sperm. The action of the prostate muscles helps push fluid and semen through the penis during sexual orgasm.

In many men, the prostate can grow. Sometimes this causes symptoms and, over time, other complications. However, there are treatments.

What is BPH?

BPH is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It occurs when prostate cells start growing. These extra cells swell the prostate and compress the urethra, restricting the flow of urine.

BPH is not the same as prostate cancer and it does not increase the risk of cancer. However, it can cause symptoms that can affect your quality of life.

BPH is common in men over 50.

Symptoms of BPH

An enlarged prostate can interfere or block the bladder. Frequent urination is a common symptom of BPH. It is every 1-2 hours, especially at night.

Other symptoms are:

Incomplete emptying: feeling full even after urinating.

Frequency: You need to urinate frequently, about every 1-2 hours.

Intermittent: You need to stop and start over several times to urinate.

Urinary urgency: feeling of impatience to urinate.

Low urine output: Low urine output.

Effort: Difficulty starting to urinate or needing to push or force to urinate.

Nocturia: needing to get up more than once during the night to urinate.

Severe prostatic hyperplasia can cause an inability to urinate. This is an emergency that must be addressed immediately.

Diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

When checking for BPH, your doctor usually starts by doing a physical exam and asking about your medical history. The physical exam includes a rectal exam, which allows the doctor to estimate the size and shape of the prostate. Other tests include:

Urine analysis. Your urine will be checked for blood and bacteria.

Urodynamic examination. The bladder is filled with fluid through a catheter and the pressure in the bladder is measured during urination.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. This blood test checks for prostate cancer.

Residues after urination. This checks the amount of urine left in the bladder after urinating.

Cystoscopy. This uses a small, lighted telescope inserted into the urethra to examine the urethra and bladder.

Your doctor may also ask you about any medications you are taking that may affect your urinary system, such as:

  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretic
  • Antihistamine
  • Sedative

Your doctor can make any necessary changes to your medications. Do not try to change medications or doses on your own.

Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after self-treatment for at least two months.

What are the causes of an enlarged prostate (BPH)?

Age is one of the main contributing factors to prostate enlargement.

As men age, their production of testosterone, the male sex hormone, decreases. This increases the proportion of estrogen in the body, and scientists believe it contributes to the development of prostate cell proliferation in the body, which can lead to prostate enlargement.

Another theory points to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a potential risk factor. This hormone is involved in prostate growth, and scientists have also found that men who do not produce DHT do not develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

For this reason, doctors recommend that men be screened regularly for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from the age of 50.

Treatment of an enlarged prostate (BPH)

There are several treatment options that can help reduce or eliminate benign prostatic hyperplasia.

If you have mild and tolerable symptoms, your doctor may choose to postpone invasive treatment options as they may heal on their own.

However, if symptoms persist and worsen over time, various methods of treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may be prescribed.

These treatment plans typically include:


Medications are the ideal treatment regimen for less severe BPH. Common medications include:

Alpha-blockers: facilitate urination.

5-alpha reductase inhibitors: shrink the prostate and inhibit prostate growth.

Tadalafil (Cialis):  Vidalista black 80 mg and Vidalista 60 mg are Commonly used for erectile dysfunction, but research indicates it may also help treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Check the other Cialis pills that can help to treat BPH

Combination drug therapy: Take both an alpha-blocker and a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor to improve efficacy in some patients.

Transurethral Microwave Thermotherapy

Using microwave energy and special electrodes, this treatment breaks down an enlarged prostate to relieve symptoms. Mainly used for small prostates.

Laser therapy

High-energy lasers remove prostate tissue with little or no side effects. Although this helps treat symptoms quickly, men should not have further prostate surgeries as they will need to take blood thinners afterwards.


This procedure reduces blood flow to and from the prostate by blocking it. This reduces the size of the prostate.

Minimally invasive treatment / surgical treatment

If symptoms are moderate to severe and other treatments have failed, prostate surgery may be preferable.

This step is not recommended for people with urinary tract infections, history of radiation therapy, or neuropathies. There is also a risk of side effects such as erectile dysfunction, urinary tract infections and premature ejaculation, but these are quite rare.

Other treatment options for BPH

Although the above treatments include most treatments, there are a few other ways to treat and control BPH.

These include:

  • Open or robot-assisted prostatectomy
  • Prostate Urethral Lift (PUL)
  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  • Transurethral incision (TUIP) of the prostate
  • Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA)

Although the options can be overwhelming, it is not up to the patient to choose a treatment plan. Your doctor will choose a plan that meets your needs based on your age, medical condition, severity of illness, and medical history.